Zephaniah 1:17 Remember thatgenerally speakingit was originally given with respect to the historical circumstances that called it forth. Jeremiah 49:14, 16), and Joel (Obadiah 15, 17; cf. For two of them (Joel and Obadiah), however, no conclusive evidence as to the time of their work exists, and scholars differ widely in their views concerning this matter. To the very last, Christ would have averted the doom of the Jewish nation if the people had received Him. They rejected the Light of the world, and henceforth their lives were surrounded with darkness as the darkness of midnight. The futurist school of interpretation contends that the many promises of restoration and world leadership made to ancient Israel are yet to be fulfilled in connection with the establishment of the modern state of Israel in Palestine. Uzziah was sole king over Judah from 767 to 750, and Jeroboam over Israel from 782 to 753. The prophets did not always clearly understand messages they themselves had borne pointing forward to the distant future, to the coming of the Messiah (1 Peter 1:10, 11). Discover what the message meant to the people of that time. 2. WebThere are four major prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel. They are called minor prophets because their books are less in size (these books are all very small and contain few Nehemiah 13:10-12; Malachi 2:11-16; cf. All this leads to the conclusion that Micah prophesied from about 740 to about 700 B.C. Enigmatic is his statement that this 5th year of captivity was also the thirtieth year. It is believed that the prophet refers either to his own age or to that year as the 30th year reckoned from the reform which took place during the 18th year of Josiah. In Israel, there was sometimes more than one prophet, and sometimes there were many prophets. Sinai God entered into covenant relation with Israel as a nation (Exodus 19:1-8; 24:3-8; Deuteronomy 7:6-14) upon the same basic conditions and with the same ultimate objectives as the Abrahamic covenant. Observe the conditional aspects of the prediction and ascertain whether or not, or to what extent, the conditions were met. Without this, the people of Israel would not qualify to receive the material blessings God designed to bestow upon them. The response of the prophets is contrasted: Jeremiah is spontaneous and candid, while Ezekiel makes no spoken reply in the call narrative (pp. Predictions of national disgrace, rejection, and woe that were to result from apostasy would never have been realized. WebAnd Isaiah did so, walking around naked and barefoot. They voluntarily accepted God as their sovereign, and this constituted the nation a theocracy. In the 5th year of Jehoiachins captivity, 593/92, Ezekiel had his first vision by the river Chebar, a canal near the famous city of Nippur in lower Babylonia (chapter 1:1-3). Acts 1:6), to appear as a liberator and conqueror, and to exalt Israel to dominion over all nations (see on Luke 4:19). In Jeremiah, we see evidence of God elevating humble men like Jeremiah to become leaders precisely when they are needed. Jeremiah lived afterwards during a time leading up to the carrying away of the southern two tribes of Judah into bondage in Babylon. See Deuteronomy 7:13; 28:2-8; Malachi 3:8-11. It would become an object lesson of the results of acting in harmony with moral, as with natural, law. Under Nebuchadnezzars successors Daniels service seems not to have been desired. It is important to note that all the Old Testament promises looking forward to a time of restoration for the Jews were given in anticipation of their return from captivity (see Isaiah 10:24-34; 14:1-7; 27:12, 13; 40:2; 61:4-10; Jeremiah 16:14-16; 23:3-8; 25:11; 29:10-13; 30:3-12; 32:7-27, 37-44; Ezekiel 34:11-15; 37; Amos 9:10-15; Micah 2:12, 13; etc.). The day, before, He had called it my house (chapter 21:13), but henceforth He no longer owned it as His. Micah, Hosea, and Jeremiah. It is true, he says, that national Israel stumbled at the stumblingstone, Jesus Christ (Romans 9:32, 33; 11:11; cf. WebIn Isaiah, we read about God's unbroken relationship with His people both the promise and its fulfillment in an ongoing pattern that's visible throughout history. It ignores the plain statements of the Old Testament that Gods promises to Israel were all conditional. In Egypt, Jeremiah raised his voice against the idolatries the Jews practiced there (chapters 43; 44). Jeremiah 22:26 I will hurl you and the mother who gave you birth into another land, where neither of you were born--and there you both will die. Hence, 640 B.C., about midway between the two limits, marked by the destruction of Thebes and the fall of Nineveh, would seem to be a reasonable conjectural date for Nahums prophetic ministry. Unfortunately, Nehemiahs second term as governor cannot be dated, which fact makes it also somewhat difficult to date Malachi. Those nations that rejected the worship and service of the true God, were to be dispossessed, and Israel would inherit the Gentiles chapter (54:3). Nation after nation would come over (Isaiah 45:14), that is, be joined with and cleave to the house of Jacob (chapter 14:1). The remaining messages and prophecies, found in chapters 9-14, are not dated, a fact that prevents us from fixing the duration of the prophets activity. Paul states the same truth in Romans 9:30, 31, where he makes it plain that the Christian church has replaced the Hebrew nation in the divine plan. But he will listen also for the further import the prophets words may have for later times, particularly, our time. The fourth school of interpretation may, at times, arrive at a valid application of the predictive portions of Old Testament prophecy to the church today and to its future experience, but neglects the primary application of these messages to their historical setting, and proceeds, quite arbitrarily, to determine that certain selected passages were written more or less exclusively for the church today. This period spanned the reigns of five kings of Judah: Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah. He has a controversy with them because they have rebelled against His authority (Jeremiah 25:31-33), and He will judge (Joel 3:9-17) and destroy them there (Isaiah 34:1-8; 63:1-6; 66:15-18). Note by whom it was spoken, to whom it was addressed, and the circumstances that called it forth. Isaiahs whole ministry from Uzziah to Manasseh must therefore have lasted more than half a century. And he did so, walking naked and barefoot. (27-3) Ezekiel 25:3. But, said the angel, Messiah would be rejected and cut off, because of the abominations of Israel, and Jerusalem and the Temple would once more life waste (verses 26, 27). 4. 6. The success of Israel was to be based on and to include: 1. The ministry of Amos may therefore have fallen in the years 767-753 B.C. Joel 1:15; 2:1, 32) can hardly serve as evidence for either a late or an early date. The prophet Zephaniah traces his genealogy back to an important personage by the name of Hizkiah, probably King Hezekiah (the names are the same in Hebrew) of Judah. Answer Jeremiah was one of the major prophets of ancient Israel and a key figure in the Old Testament. At times they had an import, not only for the age in which the prophet lived, but also for a day far future; in other words, they had a dual application. Hence no reference to these two kingdoms was made by the prophet. Daniel himself so understood these promises (Daniel 9:1-8). For I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.. There, he spent an unknown number of years before his return to Judea and his discovery of the abuses described in chapter 13. WebLast time you checked the cover of your family Bible, it probably didnt say The Bible, by God. since nearly all are named and credit given to a specific writer: the book of Isaiah to Isaiah, the books of Jeremiah and Lamentations to Jeremiah, the book of Ezekiel to Ezekiel, and so on. Ambassadors from one foreign country after another would come to discover, if they might, the great secret of Israels success as a nation, and its leaders would have the opportunity of directing the minds of their visitors to the Source of all good things. 34:23) 622 Jeremiah 11 and 12 are given. This would make Isaiah first cousin to King Uzziah and grandson to When the Jews rejected Christ as the Messiah, God in turn rejected them and commissioned the Christian church as His chosen instrument for the salvation of the world (Matthew 28:19, 20; 2 Corinthians 5:18-20; 1 Peter 2:9, 10; etc.). Psalms 68:31. Its people were given no promise of complete restoration to their former power in Palestine. It is possible that he was a Temple singer, since his third chapter is dedicated to the chief singer on my stringed instruments (chapter 3:19). The short book of Obadiah, consisting of only 21 verses, is not dated and its chronological setting is uncertain. When Manasseh came to the throne as sole ruler upon his fathers death, approximately in 686, he lost little time in removing the faithful seer. Ninevehs destruction, which came in 612, is referred to as a future event, indicating that Zephaniahs work preceded this date. He is the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever (Hebrews 13:8). In view of the light they had received from God, they were even worse than the heathen, to whom they felt so much superior. Obedience to the law of God would make them marvels of prosperity before the nations of the world, living witnesses to the greatness and majesty of God (Deuteronomy 8:17, 18; 28:11-13). WebIn Judea: prophecy of Zephaniah, Jeremiah, Obadiah, and Habakkuk In Babylon: prophecy of Ezekiel. Gods word is sure (Isaiah 40:8; 55:11; Romans 11:29), and His plan for the salvation of man will ultimately prevail (Isaiah 46:10). 22 quart mirro pressure canner There is no god but He. Yet not A Anathoth 51 Q Who became king of Babylon about the same time as Jeremiah was called by God? In his early prophecies, he spoke of an unidentified peril which was to come upon Jerusalem and Their own characters were to be progressively ennobled and elevated, and to reflect more and more perfectly the attributes of the perfect character of God (Deuteronomy 4:9; 28:1, 13, 14; 30:9, 10). 2. In general, Old Testament promises and predictions were addressed to literal Israel and were to have been fulfilled to them, conditional on obedience. WebIsaiah's time, Babylonian exile, and return to exile 21 Q Where did Jeremiah live when he was called to be a prophet? The plan itself never changes because God never changes. What Is the Significance of the Interjection Aha? Jesus own verdict was, The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof (Matthew 21:43; cf. Before the Israelites entered the Promised Land, God warned them not to forget that the blessings they were to enjoy there if they cooperated with Him would come as divine gifts (see Deuteronomy 8:7-14), not primarily as the result of their own wisdom and skill (verses 17-19). Acts 13:22). With the crucifixion of Christ they forever forfeited their special position as Gods chosen people. Even during the Captivity, and later under foreign tutelage, Israel remained a theocracy in theory if not fully in practice. A comparison between some of his prophecies and those of Amos indicates that Hosea was a younger contemporary of Amos (cf. Nevertheless, Isaiah believed that Judah was Gods chosen nation and they would be vindicated by God. Continuing faithfully under the following three kings, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah (chapter 1:1), he seems to have been fiercely hated by Manasseh, Hezekiahs wicked son. The 7th-century view.This view holds that Joels ministry seems to fit into the early years of Josiah, when Assyrian power was nearing its end and Babylon was still a weak kingdom. 1-39 40-55 56-66. The book of Haggai contains four addresses, each bearing a precise date giving the day, month, and year of Darius reign. The 9th-century view.The great empires of Assyria and Babylonia do not appear within the horizon of the prophet. For these reasons his ministry can be dated from about 755 (or earlier) to about 725 B.C. After the murder of Gedaliah, the new governor of Judea, the Jews of Mizpah, fearing the revenge of Nebuchadnezzar, went to Egypt and took with them Jeremiah as well as his secretary Baruch (chapter 43:6). Thus. On the other hand, the destruction of Nineveh is described as an event still future (chapter 3:7). I will call them my people, which were not my people (Romans 9:25, 26). The sanctuary became Gods dwelling place among them (see Exodus 25:8), its priests were ordained to minister before Him (Hebrews 5:1; 8:3), its services provided an object lesson of the plan of salvation and prefigured the coming of the Messiah (1 Corinthians 5:7; Colossians 2:16, 17; Hebrews 9:1-10; 10:1-12). 4. For these reasons the 7th-century date for Joel has been adopted in this commentary, although there is no conclusive proof that this choice is correct. With the call of Abraham, God set in operation a definite plan for bringing the Messiah into the world and for presenting the gospel invitation to all men (Genesis 12:1-3). He purposed to make them an honor to His name and a blessing to the nations about them. Superior craftsmanship. Zechariah probably belonged to a priestly family (chapter 1:1; cf. Galatians 5:19-23), and because of this failure to bear the fruit expected of them, forfeited their role in the divine plan (see Romans 11:20). The postexilic view.The absence of any reference to a king of Judah or to Assyria or Babylon, the reference to the hostility of Tyre and Sidon, and the mention of Greeks have been taken by some commentators as evidence for a postexilic date for Joel. He would renew His covenant with them (Jeremiah 31:10-38; Ezekiel 36:21-38; Zechariah 1:12, 17; 2:12), including its accompanying blessings (Jeremiah 33:3, 6-26; Ezekiel 36:8-15). All the visions of Daniel recorded in chapters 7-12 were received during the last years of his life, the first one (chapter 7) in Belshazzars 1st year (552 or possibly later), and the last one (chapters 10-12) in the 3rd year of Cyrus, 536/35 B.C. ), through the reigns of Jotham and Ahaz, to the end of King Hezekiah's rule in 686 (Isa. Higher than the highest human thought can reach is Gods ideal for His children. They forfeited Gods blessing because of failure to fulfill His purpose in making them His chosen people, and thus brought ruin upon themselves. Jeremiah 32:17 highlights this point by stating, "O Sovereign Lord! Captivity, he said, had confirmed the curse that came because of disobedience (verses 11, 12) and Jerusalem lay desolate (verses 16-19). 6566). Salvation was to be of the Jews, in that the Messiah would be a Jew (John 4:22), and by the Jews, as messengers of salvation to all men (Genesis 12:2, 3; 22:18; Isaiah 42:1, 6; 43:10; Galatians 3:8, 16, 18). Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, however, did. The establishment of the Hebrew monarchy did not affect the basic principles of the theocracy (Deuteronomy 17:14-20; 1 Samuel 8:7). Several prophecies followed a few months later (Zechariah 1:7 to 6:15). Its messages show that it was written after the time of the kingdom of Judah, when a governor ruled over the country (chapter 1:8), a fact that points to the Persian period. Jeremiah blames the people for ethical misbehavior. (This rule does not apply to those portions of the book of Daniel that the prophet was bidden to shut up and seal, or to other passages whose application Inspiration may have limited exclusively to our own time.). The last part of the lecture turns to Second Isaiah and the famous servant songs that find a universal significance in Jeremiahs prayer occurs in a context and we would be remiss to consider the prayer apart from that context, which is, Jeremiahs obedience to some very difficult commands from God. You may not distribute or commercially use the content on any other website or other form of electronic retrieval system. Furthermore, the fact that the people of Tyre and Sidon do not appear as hostile nations of Judah until the last decades of its history, while they are mentioned by Joel as Judahs enemies, seems also to point to a late date for the prophets ministry. However, 2 Kings 14:25 states that Jonah also pronounced a prophecy concerning the expansion of Israel that was fulfilled by Jeroboam II. See on Zechariah 1:8. (chapter 5:14), after which he was recalled to Persia. God may reject one nation or group of people in favor of another if those first summoned persistently refuse to cooperate with Him (see Jeremiah 18:6-10; cf. how were plaquemine graves different from ones from mississippian cultures, spine center of wisconsin,
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